Trends in average reading achievement for the retrieving and straightforward inferencing and the interpreting, integrating, and evaluating reading comprehension processes are presented for the countries that have comparable data from previous PIRLS assessments. Exhibit 3.5 depicts the results graphically for the countries in alphabetical order, while Exhibit 3.6 provides the detailed results from assessment to assessment. Mirroring the overall results, the trends in reading achievement for both process scales show more gains than losses. Twenty countries have data for the 15 year period between 2001 and 2016, with 10 showing increases in retrieving and straightforward inferencing and 2 decreases. Similarly, 10 had increases in interpreting, integrating, and evaluating and 3 had decreases. Of the 20 countries, 15 had the same trend result for both processes.
Forty-one of the countries participated in both 2011 and 2016, with 18 showing improvements in the retrieving and straightforward inferencing comprehension process and 8 showing decreases. Compared to five years earlier, 18 countries had higher achievement in 2016 in the interpreting, integrating, and evaluating process and 10 had lower achievement. The within country trends were the same for the two processes in 30 of the 41 countries.