Differences in average reading achievement in the literary and informational purposes are presented for the countries that have comparable data from one or more of the previous assessments in 2001, 2006, and 2011. Exhibit 3.3 depicts the results graphically for the countries in alphabetical order, while Exhibit 3.4 provides the detailed results from assessment to assessment. Mirroring the overall results, the trends in reading achievement in both purposes are more up than down. Twenty countries have data for the 15 year period between 2001 and 2016, with 8 showing increases in literary reading and only 1 a decrease. Similarly, 12 showed increases in informational reading and only 2 had decreases. Interestingly, while 13 countries had the same pattern for both purposes (both increasing, staying the about the same, or decreasing), the other 7 countries had different results for one purpose than for the other.
Forty-one of the countries participated in both 2011 and 2016, with 19 showing improvements in literary reading and 7 showing decreases. Compared to five years earlier, 17 countries had higher achievement in 2016 in informational reading and 9 had lower achievement. The trends within countries were not necessarily the same for literary and informational reading.