PIRLS 2016 is the fourth assessment of PIRLS. Differences in average reading achievement are presented for the countries that have comparable data from the previous assessments in 2001, 2006, and 2011. Exhibit 1.3 depicts the results graphically for the countries in alphabetical order, while Exhibit 1.4 provides the detailed results from assessment to assessment. The trends in reading achievement signal more improvements than downturns internationally in reading achievement at the fourth grade. Twenty countries have data for the 15 year period between 2001 and 2016, with 11 showing increases—including 4 with gains of more than 40 points (Hong Kong SAR, the Russian Federation, Singapore, and Slovenia). Average achievement in 7 of the 20 countries remained similar between 2001 and 2016, and it decreased in only 2 countries (France and the Netherlands).
Forty-one of the countries participated in both PIRLS 2011 and 2016, with 18 showing improvements, 13 having similar achievement, and 10 showing declines.